Posts Tagged ‘optogenetics’

While it’s known that the brain is responsible for instructing our fat stores to break down and release energy as we need it, scientists haven’t yet been able to pin down exactly how this process plays out. Leptin, a hormone produced by our fat cells, travels to the brain to regulate appetite, metabolism and energy, but it hasn’t been clear what communication was coming back the other way. New research has now uncovered this missing link for the first time, revealing a set of nerves that connect with fat tissue to stimulate the process in a development that could lead to new types of anti-obesity treatments.

The leptin hormone was identified around 20 years ago as a regulator of the body’s metabolism. Low levels of the hormone serve to boost one’s appetite and slow metabolism, while conversely, high leptin levels dull the appetite and facilitate better fat breakdown. Using a combination of techniques, a research team led by Ana Domingos from Portugal’s Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência were able to shed light on how leptin behaves when sending signals back to the fat by finding the nerves that meet with white fat tissue to prompt its breakdown.

“We dissected these nerve fibers from mouse fat, and using molecular markers identified these as sympathetic neurons,” explains Domingos. “When we used an ultra sensitive imaging technique, on the intact white fat tissue of a living mouse, we observed that fat cells can be encapsulated by these sympathetic neural terminals.”

But to determine the extent of these neurons’ role in obesity, the team carried out further research on mice. The rodents were genetically engineered so that these neurons could be switched on and off through optogenetics, where brain cells are made to behave differently by exposing them to light. Optogenetics is an emerging technique we have seen explored as a means of treating blindness and altering our pain threshold, among other things.

Domingos’ team found that flicking the switch on the neurons locally triggered the release of a neurotransmitter called norepinephrine, which in turn flooded the fat cells with signals that brought about fat breakdown. The team report that without these sympathetic neurons, leptin was not able to stimulate fat breakdown on its own. Therefore the findings suggest that these sympathetic neurons offer a potential target for obesity treatments other than leptin, which the brains of many obese people have a resistance to.

“This result provides new hopes for treating central leptin resistance, a condition in which the brains of obese people are insensitive to leptin,” says Domingos.

The team’s research was published in the journal Cell.

http://www.gizmag.com/neural-mechanism-fat-breakdown-anti-obesity-therapies/39601/

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memory

All might not be lost. Researchers recently announced a discovery that could have significant implications later down the road for helping people with severe amnesia or Alzheimer’s disease.

The research tackles a highly debated topic of whether memory loss due to damaged brain cells means that memories cannot be stored anymore or if just accessing that memory is inhibited in some way.

Scientists from MIT found in new research that the latter is most likely the case, demonstrating how lost memories could be recovered using technology known as optogenetics, which a news release about the study described as when “proteins are added to neurons to allow them to be activated with light.”

“The majority of researchers have favored the storage theory, but we have shown in this paper that this majority theory is probably wrong,” Susumu Tonegawa, a professor in MIT’s biology department and director of the RIKEN-MIT Center at the Picower Institute for Learning and Memory, said in a statement. “Amnesia is a problem of retrieval impairment.”

First, the scientists demonstrated how “memory engram cells” — brain cells that trigger a memory upon experiencing a related sight or smell, for example — could be strengthened in mice.

The researchers then gave the mice anisomycin, which blocked protein synthesis in neurons, after they had formed a new memory. In doing so, the researchers prevented the engram cells from strengthening.

A day later, the scientists tried to trigger the memory in mice, but couldn’t see any activation that would indicate the mice were remembering it.

“So even though the engram cells are there, without protein synthesis those cell synapses are not strengthened, and the memory is lost,” Tonegawa explained of this part of the research.

The team first developed a clever technique to selectively label the neurons representing what is known as a memory engram – in other words, the brain cells involved in forming a specific memory. They did this by genetically engineering mice so they had extra genes in all their neurons. As a result, when neurons fire as a memory is formed, they produce red proteins visible under a microscope, allowing the researchers to tell which cells were part of the engram. They also inserted a gene that made the neurons fire when illuminated by blue light.

After the researchers induced amnesia, they used optogenetic tools on the mice and witnessed the animals experiencing full recollection.

“If you test memory recall with natural recall triggers in an anisomycin-treated animal, it will be amnesiac, you cannot induce memory recall. But if you go directly to the putative engram-bearing cells and activate them with light, you can restore the memory,” Tonegawa said.

With this discovery, the researchers wrote in the study published this week in the journal Science that they believe a “specific pattern of connectivity of engram cells may be crucial for memory information storage and that strengthened synapses in these cells critically contribute to the memory retrieval process.”

James Bisby, a neuroscientist at University College London, told New Scientist that it’s “not surprising that they could trigger the memories, but it is a cool way to do it.”

http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn27618-lost-memories-recovered-in-mice-with-a-flash-of-light.html

Thanks to Steven Weihing for bringing this to the It’s Interesting community.