Posts Tagged ‘Michael Le Page’

By Michael Le Page

A recently discovered parasitic wasp appears to have extraordinary mind-controlling abilities – it can alter the behaviour of at least seven other species.

Many parasites manipulate the behaviour of their victims in extraordinary ways. For instance, sacculina barnacles invade crabs and make them care for barnacle larvae as if they were their own offspring. If the host crab is male, the parasite turns them female.

It was thought each species of parasite could manipulate the behaviour of only one host, or least only very closely related species. But the crypt-keeper wasp Euderus set is more versatile.

It parasitises other wasps called gall wasps. Gall wasps lay their eggs in plants, triggering abnormal growths – galls – inside which the wasp larvae feed and grow. Adult gall wasps chew their way out of the gall and fly off.

The crypt-keeper wasp seeks out oak galls and lays an egg inside them. The crypt-keeper larva then attacks the gall wasp larva. Infected gall wasps still start chewing their way out of the gall, but they stop chewing when the hole is still small and then remain where they are with their head blocking the exit and thus protecting the larva growing inside them – “keeping the crypt”.

How the crypt-keeper larva makes the gall wasp stop chewing at such a precise point is not clear. “I’d love to know how they do it,” says Anna Ward of the University of Iowa.

When the crypt-keeper larva turns into an adult wasp after a few days, it then chews through the head of the gall wasp to get out of the gall.

The crypt-keeper wasp, which was only described in 2017, was thought to parasitise just one species. But when Ward’s team collected 23,000 galls from 10 kinds of oak trees as part of a bigger study, they found at least 7 of the 100 species of gall wasp they collected were parasitised by the same crypt-keeper wasp. “What we found is that it is attacking different hosts that don’t seem to be closely related,” says Ward.

And there are likely many more extraordinary parasites out there. Ward thinks there are more species of parasitic wasps – most yet to be discovered – than there are species of beetle. So far 350,000 species of beetle have been described, the most of any group of animals. Parasitic wasps are small and hard to find, and hardly anyone looks for them, she says.

Journal reference: Biology Letters, DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2019.0428

Read more: https://www.newscientist.com/article/2217567-crypt-keeper-wasps-can-control-the-minds-of-7-other-species-of-wasp/#ixzz60Y7nGbC1

By Michael Le Page

For many fish, changing sex is a normal part of life. For the first time, we have found out exactly how one of these species – a small cleaner fish called the bluehead wrasse – does it.

Erica Todd at the University of Otago in New Zealand and her colleagues removed some male bluehead wrasse from a few sites on reefs off Key Largo in Florida. This triggers females to change sex. They then caught changing females at regular intervals and looked at what was happening in their bodies down to the level of which genes were turning on or off.

They found that the loss of males makes some females stressed. They become more aggressive and start performing male courtship behaviours.

In individuals that become dominant in a social group, the genes associated with female hormones shut down in a day or two, and their colours begin to change – females of the species are yellow and brown (see above), while the males are green and blue.

At the same time, the egg-producing tissues in their ovaries start to shrink and begin to be replaced by sperm-producing tissues. In just 8 to 10 days, the mature ovaries are transformed into testes, and the fish can mate with females and sire offspring.

Read more: Zoologger: Shrimp plays chicken with its sex change
After around 20 days, the fish have the full male colours and the process is complete. “The bluehead is certainly remarkable for its speed,” says Todd. “Other species do take much longer.”

However, as the fish only live around two or three years, those 20 days are a fair chunk of their lifespan, equivalent to 2 years of a human lifetime.

Around 500 species of fish can change sex, a fact long known to biologists but which got wider attention recently when the Blue Planet II documentary narrated by David Attenborough showed Asian sheepshead wrasse changing sex. It is most common for female fish to turn into males but in some species including clownfish the males turn into females.

In at least one species, the hawkfish found around southern Japan, the females can not only turn into males but also turn back into females again if circumstances require it. For one species of shrimp, there is no need to change back. It starts out male but becomes an hermaphrodite – a phenomenon known as protandric simultaneous hermaphroditism.

Journal reference: Science Advances, DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aaw7006

https://www.newscientist.com/article/2209254-bluehead-wrasse-fish-switch-from-female-to-male-in-just-20-days/