Posts Tagged ‘weight loss’

by DAVID NIELD

We know that a range of factors influence weight, including those related to lifestyle and genetics, but researchers have now identified six specific exercises that seem to offer the best chance of keeping your weight down – even if your genes don’t want you to.

Based on an analysis of 18,424 Han Chinese adults in Taiwan, aged between 30 and 70 years old, the best ways of reducing body mass index (BMI) in individuals predisposed to obesity are: regular jogging, mountain climbing, walking, power walking, dancing (to an “international standard”), and lengthy yoga practices.

But interestingly, many popular exercise types weren’t shown to do much good for those who’s genetic risk score makes them more likely to be obese.

Specifically, exercises including cycling, stretching, swimming and legendary console game Dance Dance Revolution don’t appear to be able to counteract genetic bias (though are beneficial in many other ways).

“Our findings show that the genetic effects on obesity measures can be decreased to various extents by performing different kinds of exercise,” write the researchers in their paper published in PLOS Genetics.

“The benefits of regular physical exercise are more impactful in subjects who are more predisposed to obesity.”

Besides BMI, the team also looked at four other obesity measures for a more complete picture: body fat percentage (BFP), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR).

Regular jogging – 30 minutes, three times a week – turned out to be the most effective way of counteracting obesity genes across all of them.

The researchers also suggest, based on the information dug up in the Taiwan BioBank database, that the less effective forms of exercise typically don’t use up as much energy, which is why they don’t work quite so well.

The researchers specifically noted that activities in cold water, such as swimming, could make people hungrier and cause them to eat more.

The study was able to succeed in one of its main aims, which was to show that having a genetic disposition towards obesity doesn’t mean that obesity is inevitable – the right type of exercise, carried out regularly, can fight back against that built-in genetic coding.

“Obesity is caused by genetics, lifestyle factors, and the interplay between them,” epidemiologist Wan-Yu Lin, from the National Taiwan University, told Newsweek. “While hereditary materials are inborn, lifestyle factors can be determined by oneself.”

It’s worth noting that not every type of exercise was popular enough within the sample population to be included: activities like weight training, table tennis, badminton or basketball may or may not be helpful, too. There wasn’t enough data to assess.

But with obesity numbers rising sharply across the world – and 13 percent of the global population now thought to quality as being obese – it’s clear that measures need to be taken to reverse the trend.

Being obese affects our physiological health in the way it increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, some cancers, and other issues; and there’s evidence that being seriously overweight can have a negative effect on our brains too.

Studies like this latest one can point towards ways of sticking at a healthy weight, even when the genetic cards are stacked against it. In some cases all it takes is a few minutes of exertion per day.

“Previous studies have found that performing regular physical exercise could blunt the genetic effects on BMI,” conclude the researchers.

“However, few studies have investigated BFP or measures of central obesity. These obesity measures are even more relevant to health than BMI.”

The research has been published in PLOS Genetics.

https://www.sciencealert.com/these-six-exercises-can-keep-weight-down-even-with-genetic-tendencies-for-obesity

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by MARY JO DILONARDO

When you want to lose weight, there are two things you do: eat less and exercise more.

Just cutting calories should cause you to drop pounds. But exercise alone is rarely enough for weight loss. Life isn’t fair, after all.

Think of it this way: When going on a 30-minute brisk walk at about 4 miles per hours (that’s a 15-minute mile), a 155-pound person burns about 167 calories, according to Harvard Medical School. Want to celebrate your accomplishment? That exercise is quickly erased by a large scoop of vanilla ice cream or two small chocolate chip cookies.

If more serious exercise is your thing, 30 minutes of vigorous stationary bicycling burns 391 calories. But that gets wiped away with one slice of pepperoni pizza.

It doesn’t seem fair how all that effort can be nullified by a few bites of tasty food.

Is more exercise the answer?

It seems like simple math: If exercising for x minutes burns y calories, then just exercise longer and burn more calories. But research shows it’s not that easy.

Recently, New Scientist explained it with a story called, “Why doing more exercise won’t help you burn more calories.” Science writer Teal Burrell explored the idea of the so-called exercise paradox. People who dramatically increase their workout regimens often find that despite all the sweat and motion, they shed few pounds. Scientists have several theories why that might happen.

They eat more. You went for a grueling hike and are so proud of yourself, so you reward yourself later with a chocolate shake. People tend to overestimate the calories they burn when they exercise. In one study, people worked out on a treadmill and then were told to eat from a buffet the amount of food that equaled the calories they thought they burned. They guessed they had burned about 800 calories and ate about 550, when they had really burned just 200.

They move less. You went on that grueling hike in the morning, so you sprawled on the couch the rest of the day. Another theory is that people make up for their workouts by spending the rest of the time being sedentary. These are called “compensatory behaviors” when the moving and not moving balance each other out. But exercise physiologist Lara Dugas of Loyola University doesn’t buy this idea. “That doesn’t mean you lose that 500-calorie run because you’re sedentary for the rest of the day,” she tells New Scientist. “That doesn’t make sense.”

The body adapts. The theory that seems to make the most sense is that when you exercise more, your body adjusts by spending less energy on internal functions, from the immune system to digestion. Those systems that are working in the background, spending calories, just become more efficient when you exercise more, researchers think.

The role of exercise

Mathematician and obesity researcher Kevin Hall explained to Vox why adding more exercise probably won’t lead to much weight loss. Hall used the National Institutes of Health’s Body Weight Planner to calculate that if a 200-pound man added 60 minutes of medium-intensity running four days per week for a month while keeping his calorie intake the same, he’d lose five pounds. “If this person decided to increase food intake or relax more to recover from the added exercise, then even less weight would be lost,” Hall added.

So if someone is trying to lose a lot of weight, it would take a lot of time and effort to try to lose pounds based on exercise alone.

But of course, that doesn’t mean you should cancel your gym membership and toss your sneakers into the back of your closet. Exercise is still a key part of the one-two punch to weight loss. You just have to combine it with calorie control.

Nutritionists will say that weight loss is about 80% diet and 20% exercise. So yes, watch the brownies and the snacks if you’re trying to lose the love handles, but keep moving. It’s an eat-move combination that does require smart eating and regular movement to be healthy.

https://www.mnn.com/health/fitness-well-being/stories/why-exercise-doesnt-matter-all-much-weight-loss?utm_source=Weekly+Newsletter&utm_campaign=10b270682b-RSS_EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_FRI0802_2019&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_fcbff2e256-10b270682b-40844241

By KATIE KINDELAN

Michael Watson, 18, battled his weight his entire life but decided to make a lasting change when he looked in a mirror his sophomore year of high school.

“When I looked in the mirror I was really ready to get it done and thought, ‘I can’t just fail anymore on my diet,’” Watson said. “I need to actually do this.”

Watson, now a high school senior in Canton, Ohio, started by walking to and from school every day, more than 40 minutes round trip.

He walked to school every day of his junior year, no matter whether it was hot, raining or snowing.

“When I took the bus to school, I’d want to sit by a kid and they’d say, ‘No, go sit somewhere else because I was so big,’” Watson recalled. “When I started walking, I didn’t even know what time the bus came and that was my motivation, ‘I have to walk.’”

Watson also changed his diet, working with his dad to learn how to count calories and then forgoing his normal fast food meals for salads, oatmeal and soup.

“It was extremely hard, especially at first,” said Watson, who also worked at a local Kentucky Fried Chicken restaurant during his weight loss. “What motivated me was stepping on the scale.”

“I’d see that I was 290 [pounds] and say, ‘Let’s get to 280, come on Michael, you got this,’” he said.

Watson started at his highest weight of 325 pounds. He now weighs 210 pounds, achieving a 115 pound weight loss.

In addition to walking, Watson now lifts weights in a home gym he created in his family’s garage.

“I lost a lot of my insecurities when I lost all that weight,” he said. “You work for it and you get it, so it feels amazing for sure.”

Watson’s father, Jim Watson, said he notices his son walk around now with “more confidence,” allowing him to show his “funny and outgoing” personality to more people.

Watson’s accomplishment caught the attention of his classmates and teachers at McKinley Senior High School, from which he will graduate later this month.

“His story stuck with me,” said Terrance Jones, a family support specialist at McKinley who nominated Watson for the school’s “Senior Limelight” recognition.

“Michael is a young man who aspired to be able to be a better person for himself. We’re not talking about athletic accomplishments or academic accomplishments, this is a personal development success,” he said. “We need to pay more attention to personal development successes with students.”

Watson plans to find a full-time job after graduation, possibly in the food industry. He studied in his school’s culinary program during his weight loss and credits his teacher in the program with helping him learn more about healthier food choices and cooking.

“I hope I can be an inspiration to others,” Watson said, adding that he achieved his weight loss by reminding himself that “every day is a new day.”

“That’s what I said on my diet all the time because I’d mess up some days,” he said. “I’d tell myself, ‘Tomorrow is a new day. You’ve’ got to start over and eat the oatmeal in the morning.”

https://abcnews.go.com/GMA/Wellness/high-school-senior-loses-115-pounds-walking-school/story?id=63047775

By Ben Tinker

There’s no shortage of things people swore to leave behind in 2018: bad jobs, bad relationships, bad habits. But chances are, you’re beginning 2019 with something you didn’t intend: a few extra pounds.

Every January, one of the top New Year’s resolutions is to lose weight. And if you’re looking to be successful, there’s something you should know: Diet is far more important than exercise — by a long shot.

“It couldn’t be more true,” nutritionist and CNN contributor Lisa Drayer said. “Basically, what I always tell people is, what you omit from your diet is so much more important than how much you exercise.”

Think of it like this: All of your “calories in” come from the food you eat and the beverages you drink, but only a portion of your “calories out” are lost through exercise.

According to Alexxai Kravitz, an investigator at the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases — part of the National Institutes of Health, “it’s generally accepted that there are three main components to energy expenditure”:

(1) Basal metabolic rate, the amount of energy it takes just to keep your body running (blood pumping, lungs breathing, brain functioning)

(2) Breaking down food, scientifically referred to as “diet-induced thermogenesis,” “specific dynamic action” or the “thermic effect of food”

(3) Physical activity

For most people, basal metabolic rate accounts for 60% to 80% of total energy expenditure, Kravitz said. He cited a study that defines this as “the minimal rate of energy expenditure compatible with life.” As you get older, your rate goes down, but increasing your muscle mass makes it go up.

About 10% of your calories are burned digesting the food you eat, which means roughly 10% to 30% are lost through physical activity.

“An important distinction here is that this number includes all physical activity: walking around, typing, fidgeting and formal exercise,” Kravitz said. “So if the total energy expenditure from physical activity is 10% to 30%, exercise is a subset of that number.

“The average person — professional athletes excluded — burns 5% to 15% of their daily calories through exercise,” he said. “It’s not nothing, but it’s not nearly equal to food intake, which accounts for 100% of the energy intake of the body.”

What’s more, as anyone who’s worked out a day in their life can tell you, exercising ramps up appetite — and that can sabotage even the best of intentions.

According to calculations by Harvard Medical School, a 185-pound person burns 200 calories in 30 minutes of walking at 4 miles per hour (a pace of 15 minutes per mile). You could easily undo all that hard work by eating four chocolate chip cookies, 1½ scoops of ice cream or less than two glasses of wine.

Even a vigorous cycling class, which can burn more than 700 calories, can be completely canceled out with just a few mixed drinks or a piece of cake.

“It’s so disproportionate — the amount of time that you would need to [exercise] to burn off those few bites of food,” Drayer said.

The sentiment here is that you’ve “earned” what you eat after working out, when instead — if your goal is to lose weight — you’d be better off not working out and simply eating less.

Of course, not all calories are created equal, but for simplicity’s sake, 3,500 calories equal 1 pound of fat. So to lose 1 pound a week, you should aim to cut 500 calories every day. If you drink soda, cutting that out of your diet is one of the easiest ways to get there.

“The other thing is that exercise can increase your appetite, especially with prolonged endurance exercise or with weight lifting,” Drayer said. “It’s another reason why I tell people who want to lose weight to really just focus on diet first.”

It is cliché — but also true — that slow and steady wins the race when it comes to weight loss. According to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “evidence shows that people who lose weight gradually (about 1 to 2 pounds per week) are more successful at keeping weight off.”

“All this is not to say that exercise doesn’t have its place,” Drayer said. “It’s certainly important for building strength and muscle mass and flexibility. It can help to manage diseases, including heart disease and diabetes. It can improve your mood. It can help fight depression. But although exercise can help with weight loss, diet is a much more important lifestyle factor.”

As the saying goes: Abs are made in the kitchen, not the gym.

https://www.cnn.com/2019/01/04/health/diet-exercise-weight-loss/index.html

By Carina Storrs

If you are intensifying your running regimen in hopes of losing weight, you might be running around in circles: There is a limit to how many calories we can burn through exercise, a new study suggests.

The grim message comes from a small study of a group of 332 adults living in the United States, Jamaica and Africa, some of them more sedentary and some more active. A team of researchers measured their activity level for seven days using an accelerometer, similar to the kind in the Fitbit and other wearable devices, and also measured the number of calories the participants burned over the week.

The researchers found that the participants who moved more also burned more calories, but only up to a point. The most active people hit a plateau and did not burn any more calories than their less-active peers.

Although the researchers did not look at the specific activities that participants were doing, the level on the accelerometer at which calorie burning peters out would be achieved “if you’re walking a couple miles a day, like to work and back, taking the stairs instead of the elevator and trying to exercise a couple times a week,” said Herman Pontzer, associate professor of anthropology at Hunter College, and lead author of the study, which was published on Thursday in the journal Current Biology.

The study is in step with a growing body of research suggesting that burning a bunch of calories is a less realistic weight loss strategy than we might have thought, or hoped. “We can’t push the calories out [value] around too much,” Pontzer said. “Our bodies work very hard to keep it the same.”

It might be time to shift that standard public health message: To lose weight, simply exercise more.

“We would say that ‘If you want to lose weight, you probably ought to focus on changing your diet and watching how much you eat.’ Exercise can help and it’s really important [for health in general], but they are two different tools,” Pontzer said.

The challenge of trying to lose weight just by exercising more is no secret to some clinicians. “This study actually explains a phenomenon that I see quite commonly,” said Dr. Holly F. Lofton, director of the Medical Weight Management Program at NYU Langone Medical Center.

“I see patients training for a marathon and they ask me, ‘Why am I not losing weight?’ ” even though they are exercising more and eating the same number of calories, Lofton said.

People who are increasing their exercise within a less ambitious range, such as going from being sedentary to walking or going from walking to jogging a few miles a day, will probably increase the number of calories they burn proportionally. But “over time, as you do higher levels of activity, you don’t increase your energy expenditure [or calories burned] in a linear way,” she said.

The phenomenon is also in play on the flipside, in terms of calories we take in. “We tend to think that if [patients] eat less than 800 calories, the body’s metabolism shuts down to a level that weight loss slows down quite a bit,” Lofton said.

There are tricks to ratchet up the calorie burn from your workout if you do fall into that higher level of activity.

“If you run all the time, try biking or swimming, and if you bike, try running or swimming, because using different muscles can increase your energy expenditure again,” Lofton said. “It may also be possible to decrease and then increase your activity again and get an increase [in calorie burning],” she said.

And if you think you can necessarily rely on your Fitbit or other device to tell you how many calories you burned, think again: We probably burn proportionally fewer calories as we exercise above a certain level of intensity.

“Activity monitors are going to be wrong at predicting energy expenditure because they aren’t incorporating this adaptation,” Pontzer said.

There’s a hint of good news from the current study. The plateau in how many calories participants burned was higher for those with more body fat. “Body fat is sort of a long-term signal to the body about how active you have to be and how much food is available, so your body might burn more calories,” Pontzer said.

Each of us probably maxes out at a slightly different calorie-burning plateau, Pontzer said. In addition to body fat, it could depend on metabolism, hormone levels, muscle mass and genetic differences.

Pontzer and his colleagues took a close look at the types of calories the participants in the study were burning. They found that the participants did actually continue to burn more and more so-called activity calories as they exercised more, but above a “breaking point,” Pontzer said, their bodies compensated by burning fewer resting calories, which are used for carrying out basic biological functions.

It is as if we have a set number of calories in the bank that our bodies let us burn. If we blow too much of that allowance doing physical activity, our bodies may keep us from spending too many calories doing things like ramping up our immune system or stockpiling reproductive resources.

This strategy may be pretty primitive. “We think this is a really common evolutionary adaptation that all animals use to keep from outstripping their resources and to keep from starving. Your body is listening to your environment and setting an energy expenditure level it can maintain,” Pontzer said.

Pontzer first started to suspect that a system of checks and balances might be in place to control calorie output when he was studying populations of hunter-gatherers in Tanzania.

“The women walk six miles a day, the men walk 10 miles; they are super, super active. It’s impressive when you’re out there with them, and yet their energy expenditures aren’t any different than folks who live much more cushy, sedentary lifestyles,” he said. Pontzer joined up with Amy Luke at Loyola University Chicago and her team, which carried out all the measurements for the current study, to get a better idea what was going.

If it is true that people and animals have evolved to divvy up our finite calorie balance between physical activity and everything else, “we hypothesize that maybe this is one of the things that makes exercise so healthy,” Pontzer said.

It may keep our bodies from spending too much energy on things such as immune function, which could in turn prevent inflammation from going haywire and leading to problems such as heart disease.

http://www.cnn.com/2016/01/28/health/weight-loss-exercise-plateau/index.html