Posts Tagged ‘Michigan’


Lung cancer seen on chest X ray.

Researchers have identified a gene that when inhibited or reduced, in turn, reduced or prevented human non-small cell lung cancer tumors from growing.

When mice were injected with non-small cell lung cancer cells that contained the gene NOVA1, three of four mice formed tumors. When the mice were injected with cancer cells without NOVA1, three of four mice remained tumor-free.

The fourth developed a tumor, but it was very small compared to the mice with the NOVA1 tumor cells, said Andrew Ludlow, first author on the study and assistant professor at the University of Michigan School of Kinesiology.

The research appears online today in Nature Communications. Ludlow did the work while a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, in the shared lab of Woodring Wright, professor of cell biology and internal medicine, and Jerry Shay, professor of cell biology.

The study found that in cancer cells, the NOVA1 gene is thought to activate telomerase, the enzyme that maintains telomeres—the protective caps on the ends of chromosomes that preserve genetic information during cell division (think of the plastic aglets that prevent shoelace ends from fraying).

Telomerase isn’t active in healthy adult tissues, so telomeres degrade and shorten as we age. When they get too short, the body knows to remove those damaged or dead cells.

In most cancers, telomerase is reactivated and telomeres are maintained, thus preserving the genetic material, and these are the cells that mutate and become immortal.

Telomerase is present in most cancer types, and it’s an attractive therapeutic target for cancer. However, scientists haven’t had much luck inhibiting telomerase activity in cancer, Ludlow said.

Ludlow’s group wanted to try a new approach, so they screened lung cancer cell lines for splicing genes (genes that modify RNA) that might regulate telomerase in cancer, and identified NOVA1.

They found that reducing the NOVA1 gene reduced telomerase activity, which led to shorter telomeres, and cancer cells couldn’t survive and divide.

Researchers only looked at non-small cell lung cancers, and NOVA1 was present in about 70 percent of them.

“Non-small cell lung cancer is the most prevalent form of age-related cancer, and 80 to 85 percent of all lung cancers are non-small cell,” Ludlow said. “But there really aren’t that many treatments for it.”

According to the American Cancer Society, lung cancer causes the most cancer deaths among men and women, and is the second most common cancer, aside from skin cancer.

Before researchers can target NOVA1 or telomerase splicing as a serious potential therapy for non-small cell lung cancer, they must gain a much better understanding of how telomerase is regulated. This research is a step in that direction.

Ludlow’s group is also looking at ways to directly impact telomerase splicing, in addition to reducing NOVA1.

Explore further: Blocking two enzymes could make cancer cells mortal

More information: Andrew T. Ludlow et al, NOVA1 regulates hTERT splicing and cell growth in non-small cell lung cancer, Nature Communications (2018). DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-05582-x

https://medicalxpress.com/news/2018-08-nova1-gene-tumor-growth-common.html

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As many as one in three women treated for breast cancer undergo unnecessary procedures, but a new method for diagnosing it could do a better job distinguishing between benign and aggressive tumors.

Researchers at the University of Michigan are developing a pill that makes tumors light up when exposed to infrared light, and they have demonstrated that the concept works in mice.

Mammography is an imprecise tool. About a third of breast cancer patients treated with surgery or chemotherapy have tumors that are benign or so slow-growing that they would never have become life-threatening, according to a study out of Denmark last year. In other women, dense breast tissue hides the presence of lumps and results in deaths from treatable cancers. All that, and mammograms are notoriously uncomfortable.

“We overspend $4 billion per year on the diagnosis and treatment of cancers that women would never die from,” said Greg Thurber, U-M assistant professor of chemical engineering and biomedical engineering, who led the team. “If we go to molecular imaging, we can see which tumors need to be treated.”

The move could also catch cancers that would have gone undetected. Thurber’s team uses a dye that responds to infrared light to tag a molecule commonly found on tumor cells, in the blood vessels that feed tumors and in inflamed tissue. By providing specific information on the types of molecules on the surface of the tumor cells, physicians can better distinguish a malignant cancer from a benign tumor.

Compared to visible light, infrared light penetrates the body easily—it can get to all depths of the breast without an X-ray’s tiny risk of disrupting DNA and seeding a new tumor. Using a dye delivered orally rather than directly into a vein also improves the safety of screening, as a few patients in 10,000 can have severe reactions to intravenous dyes. These small risks turn out to be significant when tens of millions of women are screened every year in the U.S. alone.

But it’s not easy to design a pill that can carry the dye to the tumor.

“To get a molecule absorbed into the bloodstream, it needs to be small and greasy. But an imaging agent needs to be larger and water-soluble. So you need exact opposite properties,” Thurber said.

Fortunately, they weren’t the only people looking for a molecule that could get from the digestive system to a tumor. The pharmaceutical company Merck was working on a new treatment for cancer and related diseases. They got as far as phase II clinical trials demonstrating its safety, but unfortunately, it wasn’t effective.

“It’s actually based on a failed drug,” Thurber said. “It binds to the target, but it doesn’t do anything, which makes it perfect for imaging.”

The targeting molecule has already been shown to make it through the stomach unscathed, and the liver also gives it a pass, so it can travel through the bloodstream. The team attached a molecule that fluoresces when it is struck with infrared light to this drug. Then, they gave the drug to mice that had breast cancer, and they saw the tumors light up.

The research is described in a study in the journal Molecular Pharmaceutics, titled, “Oral administration and detection of a near-infrared molecular imaging agent in an orthotopic mouse model for breast cancer screening.”

This work was done in collaboration with David Smith, the John G. Wagner Collegiate Professor of Pharmaceutical Sciences at the U-M College of Pharmacy. It was supported by the Foundation for Studying and Combating Cancer and the National Institutes of Health.
Bhatnagar, S., Verma, K. D., Hu, Y., Khera, E., Priluck, A., Smith, D., & Thurber, G. M. (2018). Oral Administration and Detection of a Near-Infrared Molecular Imaging Agent in an Orthotopic Mouse Model for Breast Cancer Screening. Molecular Pharmaceutics. doi:10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.7b00994

Only a couple of families have taken advantage of a new service available at a Saginaw funeral home.

Drive-thru viewings.

Paradise Funeral Chapel (http://www.paradisefuneralchapel.com) recently started offering the option, which allows mourners to pay their last respects on the go. It was designed in part to cater to those with physical limitations.

The funeral home’s president, Ivan Phillips, says he expects more customers to opt for the drive-thru once they learn it’s not a gimmick and is safe to use.

Curtains covering the window open when sensors underneath the pavement recognize the presence of a car. Mourners then get three minutes to view the body as music plays.

Phillips says drive-thru viewings are set up so they don’t conflict with traditional indoor viewings.

http://abcnews.go.com/Weird/wireStory/michigan-funeral-home-drive-option-26263313