Posts Tagged ‘health’

As the result of a six-year long research process, Fredrick R. Schumacher, a cancer epidemiology researcher at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, and an international team of more than 100 colleagues have identified 63 new genetic variations that could indicate higher risk of prostate cancer in men of European descent. The findings, published in a research letter in Nature Genetics, contain significant implications for which men may need to be regularly screened because of higher genetic risk of prostate cancer. The new findings also represent the largest increase in genetic markers for prostate cancer since they were first identified in 2006.

The changes, known as genetic markers or SNPs (“snips”), occur when a single base in the DNA differs from the usual base at that position. There are four types of bases: adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G) and cytosine (C). The order of these bases determines DNA’s instructions, or genetic code. They can serve as a flag to physicians that a person may be at higher risk for a certain disease. Previously, about 100 SNPs were associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. There are 3 billion base pairs in the human genome; of these, 163 have now been associated with prostate cancer.

One in seven men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer during their lifetimes.

“Our findings will allow us to identify which men should have early and regular PSA screenings and these findings may eventually inform treatment decisions,” said Schumacher. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screenings measure how much PSA, a protein produced by both cancerous and noncancerous tissue in the prostate, is in the blood.

Adding the 63 new SNPs to the 100 that are already known allows for the creation of a genetic risk score for prostate cancer. In the new study, the researchers found that men in the top one percent of the genetic risk score had a six-fold risk-increase of prostate cancer compared to men with an average genetic risk score. Those who had the fewest number of these SNPs, or a low genetic risk score, had the lowest likelihood of having prostate cancer.

In a meta-analysis that combined both previous and new research data, Schumacher, with colleagues from Europe and Australia, examined DNA sequences of about 80,000 men with prostate cancer and about 60,000 men who didn’t have the disease. They found that men with cancer had a higher frequency of 63 different SNPs (also known as single nucleotide polymorphisms) that men without the disease did not have. Additionally, the more of these SNPs that a man has, the more likely he is to develop prostate cancer.

The researchers estimate that there are about 500-1,000 genetic variants possibly linked to prostate cancer, not all of which have yet been identified. “We probably only need to know 10 percent to 20 percent of these to provide relevant screening guidelines,” continued Schumacher, who is an associate professor in the Department of Population and Quantitative Health Sciences at Case Western Reserve School of Medicine.

Currently, researchers don’t know which of the SNPs are the most predictive of increased prostate cancer risk. Schumacher and a number of colleagues are working to rank those most likely to be linked with prostate cancer, especially with aggressive forms of the disease that require surgery, as opposed to slowly developing versions that call for “watchful waiting” and monitoring.

The research lays a foundation for determining who and how often men should undergo PSA tests. “In the future, your genetic risk score may be highly indicative of your prostate cancer risk, which will determine the intensity of PSA screening,” said Schumacher. “We will be working to determine that precise genetic risk score range that would trigger testing. Additionally, if you have a low score, you may need screening less frequently such as every two to five years.” A further implication of the findings of the new study is the possibility of precise treatments that do not involve surgery. “Someday it may be feasible to target treatments based on a patient’s prostate cancer genetic risk score,” said Schumacher.

In addition to the work in the new study, which targets men of European background, there are parallel efforts underway looking at genetic signals of prostate cancer in men of African-American and Asian descent.

http://thedaily.case.edu/researchers-identify-dozens-new-gene-changes-point-elevated-risk-prostate-cancer-men-european-descent/

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By Alina Bradford

Blood sugar, or glucose, is the main sugar found in blood. The body gets glucose from the food we eat. This sugar is an important source of energy and provides nutrients to the body’s organs, muscles and nervous system. The absorption, storage and production of glucose is regulated constantly by complex processes involving the small intestine, liver and pancreas.

Glucose enters the bloodstream after a person has eaten carbohydrates. The endocrine system helps keep the bloodstream’s glucose levels in check using the pancreas. This organ produces the hormone insulin, releasing it after a person consumes protein or carbohydrates. The insulin sends excess glucose in the liver as glycogen.

The pancreas also produces a hormone called glucagon, which does the opposite of insulin, raising blood sugar levels when needed. The two hormones work together to keep glucose balanced.

When the body needs more sugar in the blood, the glucagon signals the liver to turn the glycogen back into glucose and release it into the bloodstream. This process is called glycogenolysis.

When there isn’t enough sugar to go around, the liver hoards the resource for the parts of the body that need it, including the brain, red blood cells and parts of the kidney. For the rest of the body, the liver makes ketones , which breaks down fat to use as fuel. The process of turning fat into ketones is called ketogenesis. The liver can also make sugar out of other things in the body, like amino acids, waste products and fat byproducts.

Glucose vs. dextrose
Dextrose is also a sugar. It’s chemically identical to glucose but is made from corn and rice, according to Healthline. It is often used as a sweetener in baking products and in processed foods. Dextrose also has medicinal purposes. It is dissolved in solutions that are given intravenously to increase a person’s blood sugar levels.

Normal blood sugar
For most people, 80 to 99 milligrams of sugar per deciliter before a meal and 80 to 140 mg/dl after a meal is normal. The American Diabetes Association says that most nonpregnant adults with diabetes should have 80 to 130 mg/dl before a meal and less than 180 mg/dl at 1 to 2 hours after beginning the meal.

These variations in blood-sugar levels, both before and after meals, reflect the way that the body absorbs and stores glucose. After you eat, your body breaks down the carbohydrates in food into smaller parts, including glucose, which the small intestine can absorb.

Problems
Diabetes happens when the body lacks insulin or because the body is not working effectively, according to Dr. Jennifer Loh, chief of the department of endocrinology for Kaiser Permanente in Hawaii. The disorder can be linked to many causes, including obesity, diet and family history, said Dr. Alyson Myers of Northwell Health in New York.

“To diagnose diabetes, we do an oral glucose-tolerance test with fasting,” Myers said.

Cells may develop a tolerance to insulin, making it necessary for the pancreas to produce and release more insulin to lower your blood sugar levels by the required amount. Eventually, the body can fail to produce enough insulin to keep up with the sugar coming into the body.

It can take decades to diagnose high blood-sugar levels, though. This may happen because the pancreas is so good at its job that a doctor can continue to get normal blood-glucose readings while insulin tolerance continues to increase, said Joy Stephenson-Laws, founder of Proactive Health Labs (pH Labs), a nonprofit that provides health care education and tools. She also wrote “Minerals – The Forgotten Nutrient: Your Secret Weapon for Getting and Staying Healthy” (Proactive Health Labs, 2016).

Health professionals can check blood sugar levels with an A1C test, which is a blood test for type 2 diabetes and prediabetes, according to the U.S. National Library of Medicine. This test measures your average blood glucose, or blood sugar, level over the previous three months.

Doctors may use the A1C alone or in combination with other diabetes tests to make a diagnosis. They also use the A1C to see how well you are managing your diabetes. This test is different from the blood sugar checks that people with diabetes do for themselves every day.

In the condition called hypoglycemia, the body fails to produce enough sugar. People with this disorder need treatment when blood sugar drops to 70 mg/dL or below. According to the Mayo Clinic, symptoms of hypoglycemia can be:

Tingling sensation around the mouth
Shakiness
Sweating
An irregular heart rhythm
Fatigue
Pale skin
Crying out during sleep
Anxiety
Hunger
Irritability


Keeping blood sugar in control

Stephenson-Laws said healthy individuals can keep their blood sugar at the appropriate levels using the following methods:

Maintaining a healthy weight

Talk with a competent health care professional about what an ideal weight for you should be before starting any kind of weight loss program.

Improving diet

Look for and select whole, unprocessed foods, like fruits and vegetables, instead of highly processed or prepared foods. Foods that have a lot of simple carbohydrates, like cookies and crackers, that your body can digest quickly tend to spike insulin levels and put additional stress on the pancreas. Also, avoid saturated fats and instead opt for unsaturated fats and high-fiber foods. Consider adding nuts, vegetables, herbs and spices to your diet.

Getting physical

A brisk walk for 30 minutes a day can greatly reduce blood sugar levels and increase insulin sensitivity.

Getting mineral levels checked

Research also shows that magnesium plays a vital role in helping insulin do its job. So, in addition to the other health benefits it provides, an adequate magnesium level can also reduce the chances of becoming insulin-tolerant.

Get insulin levels checked

Many doctors simply test for blood sugar and perform an A1C test, which primarily detects prediabetes or type 2 diabetes. Make sure you also get insulin checks.

https://www.livescience.com/62673-what-is-blood-sugar.html#?utm_source=ls-newsletter&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=05272018-ls


Researching tuberous sclerosis from the left are Adelaide Hebert, M.D.; John Slopis, M.D.; Mary Kay Koenig, M.D.; Joshua Samuels, M.D., M.P.H.; and Hope Northrup, M.D. PHOTO CREDIT Maricruz Kwon, UTHealth

Addressing a critical issue for people with a genetic disorder called tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), doctors at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth) reported that a skin cream containing rapamycin significantly reduced the disfiguring facial tumors affecting more than 90 percent of people with the condition.

Findings of the multicenter, international study involving 179 people with tuberous sclerosis complex appear in the journal JAMA Dermatology.

“People with tuberous sclerosis complex want to look like everyone else,” said Mary Kay Koenig, M.D., the study’s lead author, co-director of the Tuberous Sclerosis Center of Excellence and holder of the Endowed Chair of Mitochondrial Medicine at McGovern Medical School at UTHealth. “And, they can with this treatment.”

Tuberous sclerosis complex affects about 50,000 people in the United States and is characterized by the uncontrolled growth of non-cancerous tumors throughout the body.

While benign tumors in the kidney, brain and other organs pose the greater health risk, the tumors on the face produce a greater impact on a patient’s daily life by making them look different from everyone else, Koenig said.

Koenig’s team tested two compositions of facial cream containing rapamycin and a third with no rapamycin. Patients applied the cream at bedtime for six months.

“Eighty percent of patients getting the study drug experienced a significant improvement compared to 25 percent of those getting the mixture with no rapamycin,” she said.

“Angiofibromas on the face can be disfiguring, they can bleed and they can negatively impact quality of life for individuals with TSC,” said Kari Luther Rosbeck, president and CEO of the Tuberous Sclerosis Alliance.

“Previous treatments, including laser surgery, have painful after effects. This pivotal study and publication are a huge step toward understanding the effectiveness of topical rapamycin as a treatment option. Further, it is funded by the TSC Research Program at the Department of Defense. We are so proud of this research,” Rosbeck said.

Rapamycin is typically given to patients undergoing an organ transplant. When administered by mouth, rapamycin suppresses the immune system to make sure the organ is not rejected.

Rapamycin and tuberous sclerosis complex are linked by a protein called mTOR. When it malfunctions, tuberous sclerosis complex occurs. Rapamycin corrects this malfunction.

Rapamycin was initially used successfully to treat brain tumors caused by tuberous sclerosis complex, so researchers decided to try it on TSC-related facial tumors. Building on a 2010 pilot study on the use of rapamycin to treat TSC-related facial tumors, this study confirmed that a cream containing rapamycin shrinks these tumors.

As the drug’s toxicity is a concern when taken by mouth, researchers were careful to check for problems tied to its use on the skin. “It looks like the medication stays on the surface of the skin. We didn’t see any appreciable levels in the bloodstreams of those participating in the study,” Koenig said.

The Topical Rapamycin to Erase Angiofibromas in TSC – Multicenter Evaluation of Novel Therapy or TREATMENT trial involved 10 test sites including one in Australia.

Koenig said additional studies are needed to gauge the long-term impact of the drug, the optimal dosage and whether the facial cream should be a combined with an oral treatment.

Koenig’s coauthors include Adelaide Hebert, M.D.; Joshua Samuels, M.D., M.P.H.; John Slopis, M.D.; Cynthia S. Bell; Joan Roberson, R.N.; Patti Tate; and Hope Northrup, M.D. All are from McGovern Medical School at UTHealth with the exception of Slopis, who is with The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. Hebert is also on the faculty of the MD Anderson Cancer Center and Northrup on the faculty of The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences.

The study was supported in part by the United States Department of Defense grant DOD TSCRP CDMRP W81XWH-11-1-0240 and by the Tuberous Sclerosis Alliance of Australia.

“The face is our window to the world and when you look different from everyone else, it impacts your confidence and your ability to interact with others. This treatment will help those with TSC become more like everyone else,” Koenig said.

https://www.uth.edu/media/story.htm?id=37af25df-14a2-4c5e-b1ee-ac9585946aa0

By Laura Kurtzman

Scientists at UC San Francisco have developed a test to predict a woman’s risk of preterm birth when she is between 15 and 20 weeks pregnant, which may enable doctors to treat them early and thereby prevent severe complications later in the pregnancy.

Preterm birth is the leading cause of death for children under five in the United States, and rates are increasing both in the U.S. and around the world. It is often associated with inflammation and has many potential causes, including an acute infection in the mother, exposure to environmental toxins, or chronic conditions like hypertension and diabetes.

The new test screens for 25 biomarkers of inflammation and immune system activation, as well as for levels of proteins that are important for placenta development. Combined with information on other risk factors, such as the mother’s age and income, the test can predict whether a woman is at risk for preterm birth with more than 80 percent accuracy. In the highest risk pregnancies—preterm births occurring before 32 weeks or in women with preeclampsia, a potentially fatal pregnancy complication marked by high blood pressure in the mother—the test predicted nearly 90 percent of cases.

In the study, published Thursday, May 24, 2018, in the Journal of Perinatology, the researchers built a comprehensive test that would capture both spontaneous preterm births, which occurs when the amniotic sac breaks or contractions begin spontaneously, and “indicated” preterm birth, in which a physician induces labor or performs a cesarean section because the health of the mother or baby is in jeopardy. The researchers also wanted to be able to identify risk for preeclampsia, which is not included in current tests for preterm birth.

“There are multifactorial causes of preterm birth, and that’s why we felt like we needed to build a model that took into account multiple biological pathways,” said first author Laura Jelliffe-Pawlowski, PhD, director of Precision Health and Discovery with the UCSF California Preterm Birth Initiative and associate professor of epidemiology and biostatistics at UCSF. “The model works especially well for early preterm births and preeclampsia, which suggests that we’re effectively capturing severe types of preterm birth.”

The researchers developed the screen using blood samples taken from 400 women as part of routine prenatal care during the second trimester, comparing women who went on to give birth before 32 weeks, between 32 and 36 weeks, and after 38 weeks (full-term). The researchers first tested the samples for more than 60 different immune and growth factors, ultimately narrowing the test down to 25 factors that together could help predict risk for preterm birth. When other data, including whether or not the mother was over 34 years old or if she qualified as low income (indicated by Medicaid eligibility), improved the accuracy of the test by an additional 6 percent.

Researchers said the test could help prevent some cases of preterm birth. Based on a woman’s probability of preterm birth derived by the test, she could discuss with her clinician how best to follow-up and try to lower her risk. Some cases of preterm birth, including those caused by preeclampsia, can be prevented or delayed by taking aspirin, but treatment is most helpful if started before 16 weeks. Physicians could also evaluate high-risk women for underlying infections that may have gone undetected but could be treated. For others, close monitoring by their doctor could help flag early signs of labor like cervical shortening that can be staved off with progesterone treatment.

“We hope that this test could lead to more education and counseling of women about their level of risk so that they know about preterm birth and know what preeclampsia or early signs of labor look like,” said Jelliffe-Pawlowski. “If we can get women to the hospital as soon as possible, even if they’ve gone into labor, we can use medications to stave off contractions. This might give her some additional days before she delivers, which can be really important for the baby.”

A test for preterm birth is currently available, but it is expensive and only screens for spontaneous preterm birth, not for signs that could lead to indicated preterm births or for preeclampsia. Jelliffe-Pawlowski said that the new screen would likely be a fraction of the cost, making it more accessible to women who need it the most.

“One of the reasons we’re most excited about this test is that we see some potential for it addressing preterm birth in those most at risk, including low-income women, women of color, and women living in low-income countries,” she said. “We want to make sure that we’re developing something that has the potential to help all women, including those most in need.”

Other authors on the study were Larry Rand, Scott Oltman, and Mary Norton of UCSF; Bruce Bedell, Jeffrey Murray, and Kelli Ryckman of the University of Iowa; Rebecca Baer of UC San Diego; and Gary Shaw and David Stevenson of Stanford University.

https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2018/05/410456/risk-preterm-birth-reliably-predicted-new-test?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+ucsf_press_releases+%28UCSF+Press+Releases%29

By Hilary Hurd Anyaso

Leading theories propose that sleep presents an opportune time for important, new memories to become stabilized. And it’s long been known which brain waves are produced during sleep. But in a new study, researchers set out to better understand the brain mechanisms that secure memory storage.

The team from Northwestern and Princeton universities set out to find more direct and precisely timed evidence for the involvement of one particular sleep wave — known as the “sleep spindle.”

In the study, sleep spindles, described as bursts of brain activity typically lasting around one second, were linked to memory reactivation. The paper, “Sleep spindle refractoriness segregates periods of memory reactivation,” published today in the journal Current Biology.

“The most novel aspect of our study is that we found these spindles occur rhythmically — about every three to six seconds — and this rhythm is related to memory,” said James W. Antony, first author of the study and a postdoctoral fellow in Princeton’s Computational Memory Lab.

Three experiments explored how recent memories are reactivated during sleep. While volunteers took an afternoon nap, sound cues were surreptitiously played. Each was linked to a specific memory. The researchers’ final experiment showed that if cues were presented at opportune times such that spindles could follow them, the linked memories were more likely to be retained. If they were presented when a spindle was unlikely to follow, the linked memories were more likely to be forgotten.

“One particularly remarkable aspect of the study was that we were able to monitor spindles moment by moment while people slept,” said Ken A. Paller, senior author of the study and professor of psychology at Northwestern’s Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences. “Therefore, we could know when the brain was most ready for us to prompt memory reactivation.”
If the researchers reminded people of a recently learned fact, a spindle would likely be evident in the cerebral cortex, and memory for that information would be improved, added Paller, also director of Northwestern’s Cognitive Neuroscience Program.

“In memory research, we know it’s important to segregate experiences while you’re awake so that everything doesn’t just blend together,” said Antony, who worked in Paller’s lab at Northwestern as a doctoral student. “If that happens, you may have difficulty retrieving information because so many things will come to mind at once. We believe the spindle rhythmicity shown here might play a role in segregating successive memory reactivations from each other, preventing overlap that might cause later interference between memories.”

Ultimately, the researchers’ goal is to understand how sleep affects memory under natural conditions and how aging or disease can impact these functions.

“With that goal in mind, we’ve helped elucidate the importance of sleep spindles more generally,” Antony said.

Paller said they are on the trail of the physiology of memory reactivation.

“Future work will be needed to see how spindles fit together with other aspects of the physiology of memory and will involve other types of memory testing and other species,” Paller said.

In addition to Antony and Paller, co-authors are Luis Piloto, Margaret Wang, Paula Pacheco and Kenneth A. Norman, all of Princeton.

https://news.northwestern.edu/stories/2018/may/bursts-of-brain-activity-linked-to-memory-reactivation/


Adipose Connective Tissue Stores Fat in Our Body. Credit: Berkshire Community College Bioscience Image Library

A new technique to study fat stores in the body could aid efforts to find treatments to tackle obesity.

The approach focuses on energy-burning tissues found deep inside the body – called brown fat – that help to keep us warm when temperatures drop.

Experts are aiming to find it this calorie-burning power can be harnessed to stop weight gain, but little is known about how the process works.

Previous studies have mainly relied on a medical imaging technique called PET/CT to watch brown fat in action deep inside the body. But the method is unable to directly measure the chemical factors in the tissue.

Scientists at the University of Edinburgh developed a technique called microdialysis to measure how brown fat generates heat in people.

The approach involves inserting a small tube into an area of brown fat in the body and flushing it with fluid to collect a snapshot of the tissues’ chemical make-up.

The team tested the technique in six healthy volunteers, using PET/CT to guide the tube to the right location.

They discovered that in cold conditions, brown fat uses its own energy stores and other substances to generate heat.

Brown fat was active under warm conditions too, when the body does not need to generate its own heat, an outcome that had not been seen before.

Researchers hope the technique will help them to analyse the specific chemicals involved, so that they can better understand how brown fat works.

Most of the fat in our body is white fat, which is found under the skin and surrounding internal organs. It stores excess energy when we consume more calories than we burn.

Brown fat is mainly found in babies and helps them to stay warm. Levels can decrease with age but adults can still have substantial amounts of it, mainly in the neck and upper back region. People who are lean tend to have more brown fat.

The study, published in Cell Metabolism, was funded by the Medical Research Council and Wellcome.

Lead researcher Dr Roland Stimson, of the British Heart Foundation Centre for Cardiovascular Science at the University of Edinburgh, said: “Understanding how brown fat is activated could reveal potential targets for therapies that boost its energy-burning power, which could help with weight loss.”

This article has been republished from materials provided by the University of Edinburgh. Note: material may have been edited for length and content. For further information, please contact the cited source.

Reference: Weir, G., Ramage, L. E., Akyol, M., Rhodes, J. K., Kyle, C. J., Fletcher, A. M., … Stimson, R. H. (2018). Substantial Metabolic Activity of Human Brown Adipose Tissue during Warm Conditions and Cold-Induced Lipolysis of Local Triglycerides. Cell Metabolism, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2018.04.020

https://www.technologynetworks.com/proteomics/news/how-brown-fat-keeps-us-warm-304351?utm_campaign=Newsletter_TN_BreakingScienceNews&utm_source=hs_email&utm_medium=email&utm_content=63228690&_hsenc=p2ANqtz-9oqDIw3te1NPoj51s94kxnA1ClK8Oiecfela6I4WiITEbm_-SWdmw6pjMTwm2YP24gqSzRaBvUK1kkb2kZEJKPcL5JtQ&_hsmi=63228690

Chemist Vincent Rotello at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, with colleagues at University College London (UCL), U.K., announce today that they have developed a “quick and robust” blood test that can detect liver damage before symptoms appear, offering what they hope is a significant advance in early detection of liver disease. Details appear in Advanced Materials.

Their new method can detect liver fibrosis, the first stage of liver scarring that can lead to fatal disease if left unchecked, from a blood sample in 30-45 minutes, the authors note. They point out that liver disease is a leading cause of premature mortality in the United States and U.K., and is rising. It often goes unnoticed until late stages of the disease when the damage is irreversible.

For this work, Rotello and his team at UMass Amherst’s Institute of Applied Life Sciences (IALS) designed a sensor that uses polymers coated with fluorescent dyes that bind to blood proteins based on their chemical processes. The dyes change in brightness and color, offering a different signature or blood protein pattern.

He says, “This platform provides a simple and inexpensive way of diagnosing disease with potential for both personal health monitoring and applications in developing parts of the world.” Rotello and colleagues hope the new test can be used routinely in medical offices, clinics and hospitals to screen people with elevated liver disease risk so they can be treated “before it’s too late.”

The UCL team tested the sensor by comparing results from small blood samples equivalent to finger-prick checks from 65 people, in three balanced groups of healthy patients and among those with early-stage and late-stage fibrosis. This was determined using the Enhanced Liver Fibrosis (ELF) test, the existing benchmark for liver fibrosis detection. They found that the sensor identified different protein-level patterns in the blood of people in the three groups. The ELF test requires samples to be sent away to a lab.

Co-author William Peveler, a chemist now at the University of Glasgow, adds, “By comparing the different samples, the sensor array identified a ‘fingerprint’ of liver damage. It’s the first time this approach has been validated in something as complex as blood, to detect something as important as liver disease.”

The investigators report that the test distinguished fibrotic samples from healthy blood 80 percent of the time, reaching the standard threshold of clinical relevance on a widely-used metric and comparable to existing methods of diagnosing and monitoring fibrosis. The test distinguished between mild-moderate fibrosis and severe fibrosis 60 percent of the time. The researchers plan further tests with larger samples to refine the method’s effectiveness.

Peter Reinhart, director of UMass Amherst’s IALS says, “These exciting findings epitomize the mission of IALS to translate excellent basic science into diagnostics, therapeutic candidates and personalized health monitoring devices to improve human health and well-being.”

Peveler adds, “This may open the door to a cost-effective regular screening program thanks to its simplicity, low cost and robustness. We’re addressing a vital need for point-of-care diagnostics and monitoring, which could help millions of people access the care they need to prevent fatal liver disease.”

Rotello explains that the sensing strategy uses a “signature-based” approach that is highly versatile and should be useful in other areas. “A key feature of this sensing strategy is that it is not disease-specific, so it is applicable to a wide spectrum of conditions, which opens up the possibility of diagnostic systems that can track health status, providing both disease detection and monitoring wellness.”

In addition to UMass Amherst, UCL and the University of Glasgow, the U.K.-based research and development firm iQur Ltd. took part in the study. The work was supported by the U.K. Royal Society, the U.K. Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, the U.S. National Institutes of Health and the U.K. National Institute for Health Research UCLH Biomedical Research Centre.

http://www.umass.edu/newsoffice/article/umass-amherst-chemists-international-team