Posts Tagged ‘exercise’

by DAVID NIELD

We know that a range of factors influence weight, including those related to lifestyle and genetics, but researchers have now identified six specific exercises that seem to offer the best chance of keeping your weight down – even if your genes don’t want you to.

Based on an analysis of 18,424 Han Chinese adults in Taiwan, aged between 30 and 70 years old, the best ways of reducing body mass index (BMI) in individuals predisposed to obesity are: regular jogging, mountain climbing, walking, power walking, dancing (to an “international standard”), and lengthy yoga practices.

But interestingly, many popular exercise types weren’t shown to do much good for those who’s genetic risk score makes them more likely to be obese.

Specifically, exercises including cycling, stretching, swimming and legendary console game Dance Dance Revolution don’t appear to be able to counteract genetic bias (though are beneficial in many other ways).

“Our findings show that the genetic effects on obesity measures can be decreased to various extents by performing different kinds of exercise,” write the researchers in their paper published in PLOS Genetics.

“The benefits of regular physical exercise are more impactful in subjects who are more predisposed to obesity.”

Besides BMI, the team also looked at four other obesity measures for a more complete picture: body fat percentage (BFP), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR).

Regular jogging – 30 minutes, three times a week – turned out to be the most effective way of counteracting obesity genes across all of them.

The researchers also suggest, based on the information dug up in the Taiwan BioBank database, that the less effective forms of exercise typically don’t use up as much energy, which is why they don’t work quite so well.

The researchers specifically noted that activities in cold water, such as swimming, could make people hungrier and cause them to eat more.

The study was able to succeed in one of its main aims, which was to show that having a genetic disposition towards obesity doesn’t mean that obesity is inevitable – the right type of exercise, carried out regularly, can fight back against that built-in genetic coding.

“Obesity is caused by genetics, lifestyle factors, and the interplay between them,” epidemiologist Wan-Yu Lin, from the National Taiwan University, told Newsweek. “While hereditary materials are inborn, lifestyle factors can be determined by oneself.”

It’s worth noting that not every type of exercise was popular enough within the sample population to be included: activities like weight training, table tennis, badminton or basketball may or may not be helpful, too. There wasn’t enough data to assess.

But with obesity numbers rising sharply across the world – and 13 percent of the global population now thought to quality as being obese – it’s clear that measures need to be taken to reverse the trend.

Being obese affects our physiological health in the way it increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, some cancers, and other issues; and there’s evidence that being seriously overweight can have a negative effect on our brains too.

Studies like this latest one can point towards ways of sticking at a healthy weight, even when the genetic cards are stacked against it. In some cases all it takes is a few minutes of exertion per day.

“Previous studies have found that performing regular physical exercise could blunt the genetic effects on BMI,” conclude the researchers.

“However, few studies have investigated BFP or measures of central obesity. These obesity measures are even more relevant to health than BMI.”

The research has been published in PLOS Genetics.

https://www.sciencealert.com/these-six-exercises-can-keep-weight-down-even-with-genetic-tendencies-for-obesity

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by MARY JO DILONARDO

When you want to lose weight, there are two things you do: eat less and exercise more.

Just cutting calories should cause you to drop pounds. But exercise alone is rarely enough for weight loss. Life isn’t fair, after all.

Think of it this way: When going on a 30-minute brisk walk at about 4 miles per hours (that’s a 15-minute mile), a 155-pound person burns about 167 calories, according to Harvard Medical School. Want to celebrate your accomplishment? That exercise is quickly erased by a large scoop of vanilla ice cream or two small chocolate chip cookies.

If more serious exercise is your thing, 30 minutes of vigorous stationary bicycling burns 391 calories. But that gets wiped away with one slice of pepperoni pizza.

It doesn’t seem fair how all that effort can be nullified by a few bites of tasty food.

Is more exercise the answer?

It seems like simple math: If exercising for x minutes burns y calories, then just exercise longer and burn more calories. But research shows it’s not that easy.

Recently, New Scientist explained it with a story called, “Why doing more exercise won’t help you burn more calories.” Science writer Teal Burrell explored the idea of the so-called exercise paradox. People who dramatically increase their workout regimens often find that despite all the sweat and motion, they shed few pounds. Scientists have several theories why that might happen.

They eat more. You went for a grueling hike and are so proud of yourself, so you reward yourself later with a chocolate shake. People tend to overestimate the calories they burn when they exercise. In one study, people worked out on a treadmill and then were told to eat from a buffet the amount of food that equaled the calories they thought they burned. They guessed they had burned about 800 calories and ate about 550, when they had really burned just 200.

They move less. You went on that grueling hike in the morning, so you sprawled on the couch the rest of the day. Another theory is that people make up for their workouts by spending the rest of the time being sedentary. These are called “compensatory behaviors” when the moving and not moving balance each other out. But exercise physiologist Lara Dugas of Loyola University doesn’t buy this idea. “That doesn’t mean you lose that 500-calorie run because you’re sedentary for the rest of the day,” she tells New Scientist. “That doesn’t make sense.”

The body adapts. The theory that seems to make the most sense is that when you exercise more, your body adjusts by spending less energy on internal functions, from the immune system to digestion. Those systems that are working in the background, spending calories, just become more efficient when you exercise more, researchers think.

The role of exercise

Mathematician and obesity researcher Kevin Hall explained to Vox why adding more exercise probably won’t lead to much weight loss. Hall used the National Institutes of Health’s Body Weight Planner to calculate that if a 200-pound man added 60 minutes of medium-intensity running four days per week for a month while keeping his calorie intake the same, he’d lose five pounds. “If this person decided to increase food intake or relax more to recover from the added exercise, then even less weight would be lost,” Hall added.

So if someone is trying to lose a lot of weight, it would take a lot of time and effort to try to lose pounds based on exercise alone.

But of course, that doesn’t mean you should cancel your gym membership and toss your sneakers into the back of your closet. Exercise is still a key part of the one-two punch to weight loss. You just have to combine it with calorie control.

Nutritionists will say that weight loss is about 80% diet and 20% exercise. So yes, watch the brownies and the snacks if you’re trying to lose the love handles, but keep moving. It’s an eat-move combination that does require smart eating and regular movement to be healthy.

https://www.mnn.com/health/fitness-well-being/stories/why-exercise-doesnt-matter-all-much-weight-loss?utm_source=Weekly+Newsletter&utm_campaign=10b270682b-RSS_EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_FRI0802_2019&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_fcbff2e256-10b270682b-40844241

By Ben Tinker

There’s no shortage of things people swore to leave behind in 2018: bad jobs, bad relationships, bad habits. But chances are, you’re beginning 2019 with something you didn’t intend: a few extra pounds.

Every January, one of the top New Year’s resolutions is to lose weight. And if you’re looking to be successful, there’s something you should know: Diet is far more important than exercise — by a long shot.

“It couldn’t be more true,” nutritionist and CNN contributor Lisa Drayer said. “Basically, what I always tell people is, what you omit from your diet is so much more important than how much you exercise.”

Think of it like this: All of your “calories in” come from the food you eat and the beverages you drink, but only a portion of your “calories out” are lost through exercise.

According to Alexxai Kravitz, an investigator at the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases — part of the National Institutes of Health, “it’s generally accepted that there are three main components to energy expenditure”:

(1) Basal metabolic rate, the amount of energy it takes just to keep your body running (blood pumping, lungs breathing, brain functioning)

(2) Breaking down food, scientifically referred to as “diet-induced thermogenesis,” “specific dynamic action” or the “thermic effect of food”

(3) Physical activity

For most people, basal metabolic rate accounts for 60% to 80% of total energy expenditure, Kravitz said. He cited a study that defines this as “the minimal rate of energy expenditure compatible with life.” As you get older, your rate goes down, but increasing your muscle mass makes it go up.

About 10% of your calories are burned digesting the food you eat, which means roughly 10% to 30% are lost through physical activity.

“An important distinction here is that this number includes all physical activity: walking around, typing, fidgeting and formal exercise,” Kravitz said. “So if the total energy expenditure from physical activity is 10% to 30%, exercise is a subset of that number.

“The average person — professional athletes excluded — burns 5% to 15% of their daily calories through exercise,” he said. “It’s not nothing, but it’s not nearly equal to food intake, which accounts for 100% of the energy intake of the body.”

What’s more, as anyone who’s worked out a day in their life can tell you, exercising ramps up appetite — and that can sabotage even the best of intentions.

According to calculations by Harvard Medical School, a 185-pound person burns 200 calories in 30 minutes of walking at 4 miles per hour (a pace of 15 minutes per mile). You could easily undo all that hard work by eating four chocolate chip cookies, 1½ scoops of ice cream or less than two glasses of wine.

Even a vigorous cycling class, which can burn more than 700 calories, can be completely canceled out with just a few mixed drinks or a piece of cake.

“It’s so disproportionate — the amount of time that you would need to [exercise] to burn off those few bites of food,” Drayer said.

The sentiment here is that you’ve “earned” what you eat after working out, when instead — if your goal is to lose weight — you’d be better off not working out and simply eating less.

Of course, not all calories are created equal, but for simplicity’s sake, 3,500 calories equal 1 pound of fat. So to lose 1 pound a week, you should aim to cut 500 calories every day. If you drink soda, cutting that out of your diet is one of the easiest ways to get there.

“The other thing is that exercise can increase your appetite, especially with prolonged endurance exercise or with weight lifting,” Drayer said. “It’s another reason why I tell people who want to lose weight to really just focus on diet first.”

It is cliché — but also true — that slow and steady wins the race when it comes to weight loss. According to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “evidence shows that people who lose weight gradually (about 1 to 2 pounds per week) are more successful at keeping weight off.”

“All this is not to say that exercise doesn’t have its place,” Drayer said. “It’s certainly important for building strength and muscle mass and flexibility. It can help to manage diseases, including heart disease and diabetes. It can improve your mood. It can help fight depression. But although exercise can help with weight loss, diet is a much more important lifestyle factor.”

As the saying goes: Abs are made in the kitchen, not the gym.

https://www.cnn.com/2019/01/04/health/diet-exercise-weight-loss/index.html

By Ana Sandoiu

New research finds that a 6-month regimen of aerobic exercise can reverse symptoms of mild cognitive impairment in older adults.

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is characterized by a mild loss of cognitive abilities, such as memory and reasoning skills.

A person with MCI may find it hard to remember things, make decisions, or focus on tasks.

While the loss of cognitive abilities is not serious enough to interfere with daily activities, MCI raises the risk of Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia.

According to the Alzheimer’s Association, 15–20 percent of adults aged 65 and over in the United States have MCI.

New research suggests that there might be a way to reverse these age-related cognitive problems. James A. Blumenthal, Ph.D. — of Duke University Medical Center in Durham, NC — and colleagues examined the effects of regimented exercise in 160 people aged 65 on average.

They published their findings in the journal Neurology.

In Australia, a University of Sydney study has linked improved cognitive function with stronger muscles using a steady regime of weightlifting exercises. Published in the Journal of American Geriatrics, the study used a system known as SMART (Study of Mental and Resistance Training). A trial was done on a group of patients age 55 to 68, suffering MCI (mild cognitive impairment). This condition is not as serious as full-blown dementia, as people affected only have mild cognitive symptoms not severe enough to disable them from normal daily life.

People who have MCI though are at high risk of developing dementia or Alzheimer’s with 80% going on to develop Alzheimer’s disease within 6 years. The World Alzheimer Report 2016 has reported that 47 million people globally are affected by dementia related diseases, with an expected three-fold increase by the year 2050. The cost of care is high for these patients, with a focus only on extending the quality of life for those living with dementia.

Weight Training Improves Cognitive Functions

The aim of the study was to measure the effects of different physical and mental activities on the human brain. Researchers examined 100 people affected by MCI. They were divided into four groups, and assigned the activities as seen below:
•weightlifting exercises
•seated stretching exercises
•real cognitive training on a computer
•placebo training on a computer

The weightlifting trial lasted for 6 months with exercising done twice a week. As the participants got stronger, they increased the amount of weight for each exercise. The exercises were done while trying to maintain 80% or greater at their peak strength.

Surprisingly, only the weight training activity demonstrated a measured improvement in brain function. The stretching exercises, cognitive training, and placebo training did not yield any results. This proved a link between muscle strength gained through physical training and the improved cognitive functions. According to Doctor Yorgi Mavros, lead author of the study, there was a clear relationship between mental functions and increased muscular strength. And the stronger the muscles got the greater the mental improvement.

In an earlier study, researchers scanned the brains of older adults after 6 months of weight training. The results mirrored the SMART trial with measured brain growth. Although previous studies have been done that show links between exercise and improved brain functions, the SMART system went into detail on the types of exercise required to get the best results. This study was a first in showing evidence of a link between strength training and improved cognitive functions for people with MCI who were 55 or older.

Delaying or Stopping Aging in the Brain

People increase their chances of brain impairment by not exercising. Exercise can help prevent dementia and Alzheimer’s disease, but also improves cardiovascular health and some other cognitive processes like multitasking.

Doctor Mavros is a strong advocate for encouraging resistance exercises as people start to grow older. The result could be a much healthier aging population. Mavros stressed the need for exercising at least 2-3 time per week at a high enough intensity in order to get the maximum cognitive benefits.

Professor Maria Fiatarone Singh of the University of Sydney wants to discover the underlying process of muscle growth and brain growth and its effect on cognitive performance. The next step is deciding how to prescribe optimal exercise programs to individuals with mild cognitive impairment, and to those who want to prevent MCI.

The authors of the study pointed out that the mechanism behind weight training and improving cognitive impairment has not yet been determined and future study may uncover the secret of delaying or even stopping degenerative aging effects of the brain.

http://www.worldhealth.net/news/stronger-muscles-improved-cognitive-function/

by JENN SAVEDGE

A new study has found that slower runners live longer than those who push the pace

For the study, which was published recently in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology, researchers surveyed about 5,000 people, including 1,100 runners and 4,000 people who identified themselves as “non-runners.” Participants in the non-running group did not engage in any type of regular exercise or strenuous activity.

Those in the “running” group were split into three groups depending upon how far, how fast and how often they ran. The study participants were men and women of various ages who were considered relatively healthy.

Researchers checked back with the group after 10 years and found (not surprisingly) that the runners had longer lifespans than their sedentary peers. But what was surprising was the longevity difference among the runners. Those with the lowest rate of death were the light joggers, folks who ran roughly two to three times per week for about 1 to 2.4 miles per session at a speed self-described as “slow.”

Next in line in terms of lifespan were the moderate runners, followed by the speedsters, who tied with the non-runners for highest mortality rate. That’s right, those who ran hard and fast had the same lifespan as those who never left the couch.

http://www.mnn.com/health/fitness-well-being/blogs/slow-running-better-for-your-health

By Morgan Manella

Companies that want their employees to exercise more might want to skip the promise of prizes or pats on the back. Instead, a new study shows, giving someone a financial incentive and then threatening to take it away might work better.

Workplace wellness programs are gaining popularity, and more than 80% of large employers are now using some form of financial incentive to increase physical activity, according a new study published in the Annals of Internal Medicine. This comes after the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that more than half of adults in the United States do not reach the minimum recommended level of physical activity to see benefits to their health.

The study gave 281 people a 7,000 step-a-day goal that they were to keep up during a 13-week challenge. Researchers tested three financial incentive designs.

One group received $1.40 each day that they hit the 7,000-step goal. A second group was entered into a daily lottery, but participants were only eligible to collect a reward if they reached 7,000 steps the day before. The third group was given $42 upfront each month, and $1.40 was taken away each day the goal was not met. The control group received no money but did get some daily feedback.

The researchers found that the possibility of losing money led people to exercise more than the other incentives. It resulted in a 50% relative increase in the average amount of days participants achieved their physical activity goals.

“People are more motivated by losses than gains, and they like immediate gratification,” said study author, Dr. Mitesh Patel, an assistant professor in the Perelman School of Medicine and at the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania. “They want to be rewarded today, not next year or far into the future.”

The findings suggest that the way a financial incentive is framed is important to how effective it is — and it can influence the success of health promotion programs, according to the study.

“There is a large body of evidence in behavioral economics that has looked at ways of framing,” Patel said. “It’s the way our brains are wired that we tend to avoid wanting to lose things more than the benefit we get from gaining them. It makes people think like the money is theirs to lose from day one. By having skin in the game, it makes people more motivated, and we think we can leverage that in these types of programs.”

The study participants had an average BMI of 33.2, which classifies a person as obese, according to Patel.

“That is significant because most employers or wellness programs are designed to target people that are already motivated and people that tend to engage,” he said. “We wanted to target overweight and obese people that are more sedentary and have the most to benefit from these programs.”

In most programs, many participants will drop out quickly and only the motivated will stay involved, Patel said.

“In ours, we were pleasantly surprised that 96% stayed,” he said.

He attributes such high engagement rates in this study to the combination of design and technology. “The main takeaway is that the design of the incentive is critical to its success,” he said.

“Our study can help them [wellness programs] to design these incentives in a way that can be more effective and engage employees that have more to benefit, especially those that are obese, and to take into account that simple changes in the way we frame incentives can have a dramatic outcome in how we influence adults to change their behavior.”

http://www.cnn.com/2016/02/17/health/financial-incentive-exercise-goals/index.html