Posts Tagged ‘Carly Cassella’

by CARLY CASSELLA

Scientists are closing in on a blood test for fibromyalgia, and the result could save patients from what is currently a lengthy and vague process of diagnosis.

Researchers at Ohio State University are now aiming to have a diagnostic blood test available for widespread use within the next five years.

Their confidence stems from a recently discovered biomarker – a “metabolic fingerprint” as the researchers put it – traceable in the blood of those with the disorder.

“We found clear, reproducible metabolic patterns in the blood of dozens of patients with fibromyalgia,” says lead author Kevin Hackshaw, a rheumatologist at Ohio State University.

“This brings us much closer to a blood test than we have ever been.”

Fibromyalgia is a common, debilitating, and poorly understood disorder, marked by widespread pain and fatigue, with no known cause and absolutely no cure.

In the United States, it’s the most common cause of chronic widespread pain, and that’s not even counting the thousands of patients who go undiagnosed every year.

Without a reliable way to detect this disorder, it’s estimated that up to three out of four people with the condition remain undiagnosed. And on average it can take five years from when a person’s symptoms first appear to them actually receiving a diagnosis.

In total, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that about two percent of the population – around four million adults – have fibromyalgia, with women making up a disproportionate slice.

Left with few options, many patients are simply forced to live with their pain.With nowhere to go, many become desperate and turn to potentially harmful treatments.

“When you look at chronic pain clinics, about 40 percent of patients on opioids meet the diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia,” says Hackshaw.

“Fibromyalgia often gets worse, and certainly doesn’t get better, with opioids.”

It was Hackshaw’s goal to intervene sooner. Using vibrational spectroscopy, a technique which measures the energy of molecules, his team analysed blood samples from 50 people with fibromyalgia, 29 with rheumatoid arthritis, 19 with osteoarthritis, and 23 with lupus.

Despite the fact these disorders can present with similar symptoms, the blood of those participants with fibromyalgia was distinct.

Using these unique patterns, the researchers then tried to blindly predict participants’ diagnoses. Even without knowing their true disorder, the researchers were able to accurately diagnose every study participant based on that molecular fingerprint in the blood.

“These initial results are remarkable,” says co-author Luis Rodriguez-Saona, an expert in vibrational spectroscopy at Ohio State University.

“If we can help speed diagnosis for these patients, their treatment will be better and they’ll likely have better outlooks. There’s nothing worse than being in a grey area where you don’t know what disease you have.”

While the sample size is undoubtedly small, the results are promising. If the team can replicate their results on a larger scale, with a couple hundred diverse participants, then a blood test in five years might not seem so far-fetched.

Not to mention what that would mean for treatment. If the researchers can prove they really have identified a biological fingerprint for fibromyalgia, this could give us new drug targets in the future.

“Thus,” the authors conclude, “our studies have great importance both from development of a reproducible biomarker as well as identifying potential new therapeutic targets for treatment.”

This study has been published in the Journal of Biological Chemistry.

https://www.sciencealert.com/scientists-have-devised-a-blood-test-that-can-accurately-diagnose-fibromyalgia

by Carly Cassella

Sticks and stones may break your bones, but name-calling could actually change the structure of your brain.

A new study has found that persistent bullying in high school is not just psychologically traumatising, it could also cause real and lasting damage to the developing brain.

The findings are drawn from a long-term study on teenage brain development and mental health, which collected brain scans and mental health questionnaires from European teenagers between the ages of 14 and 19.

Following 682 young people in England, Ireland, France and Germany, the researchers tallied 36 in total who reported experiencing chronic bullying during these years.

When the researchers compared the bullied participants to those who had experienced less intense bullying, they noticed that their brains looked different.

Across the length of the study, in certain regions, the brains of the bullied participants appeared to have actually shrunk in size.

In particular, the pattern of shrinking was observed in two parts of the brain called the putamen and the caudate, a change oddly reminiscent of adults who have experienced early life stress, such as childhood maltreatment.

Sure enough, the researchers found that they could partly explain these changes using the relationship between extreme bullying and higher levels of general anxiety at age 19. And this was true even when controlling for other types of stress and co-morbid depressive symptoms.

The connection is further supported by previous functional MRI studies that found differences in the connectivity and activation of the caudate and putamen activation in those with anxiety.

“Although not classically considered relevant to anxiety, the importance of structural changes in the putamen and caudate to the development of anxiety most likely lies in their contribution to related behaviours such as reward sensitivity, motivation, conditioning, attention, and emotional processing,” explains lead author Erin Burke Quinlan from King’s College London.

In other words, the authors think all of this shrinking could be a mark of mental illness, or at least help explain why these 19-year-olds are experiencing such unusually high anxiety.

But while numerous past studies have already linked childhood and adolescent bullying to mental illness, this is the very first study to show that unrelenting victimisation could impact a teenager’s mental health by actually reshaping their brain.

The results are cause for worry. During adolescence, a young person’s brain is absolutely exploding with growth, expanding at an incredible place.

And even though it’s normal for the brain to prune back some of this overabundance, in the brains of those who experienced chronic bullying, the whole pruning process appears to have spiralled out of control.

The teenage years are an extremely important and formative period in a person’s life, and these sorts of significant changes do not bode well. The authors suspect that as these children age, they might even begin to experience greater shrinkage in the brain.

But an even longer long-term study will need to be done if we want to verify that hunch. In the meantime, the authors are recommending that every effort be made to limit bullying before it can cause damage to a teenager’s brain and their mental health.

This study has been published in Molecular Psychiatry.

https://www.sciencealert.com/chronic-bullying-could-actually-reshape-the-brains-of-teens